STANAG 6001 reading level 3

STANAG 6001 reading test – level 3

(L3/R/004)

 

TASK ONE

You are going to read two texts. For questions 1 to 6 choose the answer (A, B or C), which fits best according to the texts.

Text One

ATK To Make Artillery Shell

The U.S. Army has awarded Alliant Techsystems (ATK), Edina, Minn., a $20 million development deal for its Precision Guidance Kit (PGK), an artillery shell out-fitted with precise, GPS-guided targeting capability. The award follows weeks of extensive testing at Yuma Proving Ground, Ariz., involving a shootoff between precision rounds offered by BAE systems and ATK.

‘ATK’s 18-projectile technology development demonstration test performance exceeded the Army’s objective requirement of less than or equal to 30 metres circular error probability,’ said Peter Rowland, a spokesman for the Army’s Picatinny Aresenal, N.J. ATK’s deal with the Army will lead toward a production phase for the $3,000-apiece rounds in 2009, and fielding with soldiers in combat by 2010, according to other army officials.

The PGK comprises a conventional artillery round fitted with GPS guidance kit with a fuze built on, giving the shell precise targeting capability at ranges up to 28 kilometers. ‘What amazes me most is that we take World War II vintage artillery capability and give it remarkable precision, transforming the artillery base from an area weapon into a precision weapon,’ said Jack Cronin, ATK mission system group president. Another interesting novelty is its small wing-like propellers called spinning canards. The artillery round turns one direction, while the propellers turn another to direct the munition in flight, Cronin said.

In the system development and demonstration phase, ATK and the Army will refine the shell’s jam-proof technologies to handle a variety of jamming scenarios.

1.      $20 million has been allocated for …

A. testing a new artillery round
B. equipping rounds with the GPS
C. developing artillery technology

2.      According to Peter Rowland, the new technology …

A. satisfies the Army’s expectations
B. will be used in battlefield soon
C. is ready for a production stage

3.      In Cronin’s opinion, what makes the PGK round most interesting is that …

A. conventional shells get more accuracy
B. its targeting precision is a lot bigger
C. it is equipped with guidance devices

Text Two

 Think Ahead

Now that the White House is backing a larger U.S. Army, the question is whether the Americans really need 92,000 more troops. Since the end of the Cold War, ground forces advocates have argued against Pentagon transformation theorists who stress capital-intensive technological modernization at the expense of Army units. Their calls for additional forces have become more urgent with 150,000 troops garrisoned in Iraq and Kuwait, and another 20,000 in Afghanistan. But opponents of permanent troop increase fear that by the time these new soldiers are recruited, trained and deployed, they may no longer be needed in Iraq and Afghanistan. Adding 10,000 troops requires more than $ 1 billion per year, money that is likely to come at the expense of modernization.

Once DoD goes back to a real budget – a day many suspect will come immediately after the 2008 presidential election – it will be stuck with too many people, too much broken equipment and too much planned spending. Real defense spending will decline as government entitlement costs spike, starting in 2010 with the retirement of the baby boomers. So, when the cuts start, either procurement or people have to give. In the early 1990s, the army traded modernization spending to preserve force structure, and in the end it hurt itself by losing both people and programs. That’s why it’s going to take a great deal of forethought to make sure that when the inevitable cuts do come, the damage is eased.

Wartime creates challenges, but also opportunities to change. The U.S. Army wants to be bigger and is using its high profile in Iraq to get more of the Pentagon budget, but not thinking in the long term. Defense Secretary Robert Gates must resist that demand for the time being. He must think strategically and assess the likelihood that the nation will support a costly buildup, reset today’s degraded equipment and adequately modernize – simultaneously. The Army can’t fight, move, talk or see without the Air Force and Navy. Without the Army, all the naval and air power in the world are useless.

4.      Pentagon theorists say that …

A. there is a need to deploy more troops abroad
B. permanent troop increase will be too costly
C. the army modernization should be a priority

5.      In the future, DoD will …

A. require more money for pensions
B. have their financial means reduced
C. spend more money on equipment

6.      The author thinks that now the Defense Secretary has to …

A. fight for a bigger budget for the Army
B. oppose making the Army forces larger
C. prioritize the Navy and the Air Force

 

TASK TWO

You are going to read an interview with Brig. Gen. Vincent Desportes Commander, French Army’s Center for Forces Employment Doctrine. Choose from questions A to H the one which you think fits best each paragraph 7 to 13. There is an extra question which you do not need to use.

7. _____ Most importantly, we’ve come to realize that military force alone is rarely able to fulfill the political objectives for the deployment. You have to combine civil and military actions. We have understood that the phase following the military operation – the stabilization phase – is really the decisive one.

8. _____ Another clear lesson for everyone is the need for protection and security. Protection should be viewed as a global approach, not just in technical terms. The use of technology is not enough. War is about control, and control in the population is about numbers. But there are other things like the place where you station troops, corridors of transport or personal protection.

9. _____ Well, it is an important factor. We need better technology for protection and appropriate response. There is work to be done in adapting older-generation vehicles for use in urban and rugged terrain. Precision is also important because you want to limit collateral damage.

10. _____ Any operation is joint. It is absolutely clear that land operations need close air support. We have to make an effort to improve our technology in the area of close support. We need to work on our equipment and common training in order to have a capability in what the Americans call distributed operations.

11. _____ We all know that they, together with UAVs, are indispensable in the air-land combat concept. Any land operation requires the Army to control what we call the tactical third dimension – that’s the space between zero and 150 meters above ground level. Land operations are no longer conducted just on the ground level. That’s why air-land operations – or aerocombat – are conceived as a whole.

12. _____ There is no such thing as a purely combat or a purely peacekeeping mission any more. We have been engaged in difficult missions in the Balkans, and Afghanistan, and other places where the nature of the mission has changed. In Afghanistan, for example, there are French advisers attached to Afghan regiments, which are engaged in tough operations.

13. _____ It’s important that if the government wants to use the Army for managing crises, delivery of equipment must go ahead. If not, the answer is no. Despite its units being deployed at a very high tempo, the Army is adapting its system of preparatory training to meet the new objectives. And it has proved very efficient so far.

A. As you have not fought a war since the 1991 Gulf War, would French troops be ready to fight in a combat zone?
B. Does the French Army have the right equipment for force protection?
C. Is the Army properly trained and equipped for its missions?
D. Are there other important lessons you’ve learned?
E. Who, in your opinion, should control the acquisition of UAVs: the Army or the Air Force?
F. How important is the Air Force to French land operations?
G. What is the role of attack helicopters?
H. What has the Army learned from deployment in overseas theaters?

TASK THREE

You are going to read a newspaper article. For questions 14 to 20, choose the answer (A, B, C or D), which fits best according to the text.

The Long March

It’s no easy feat to move an army. Getting the armored transport, resources, munitions and soldiers ready for invasion is a spectacular achievement of logistics, effort and manpower. But the incursion last week of a Chinese army into London was especially challenging for the organizers because the troops and all their kit are made of terra-cotta. On loan to the British Museum from China, the 20 figures and their horses, chariots, bows, bowls and bells, which have protected the tomb of the first Qin emperor since his death in 210 B.C., began their journey in Shaanxi province. After museum officials signed documents and got the proper insurance – each figure is estimated to be worth £750,000 to £1.5 million – the soldiers were packed securely into crates at the beginning of August. Transported with great caution the ancient warriors reached London two weeks later. Though the horses barely fit through the doors of the Reading Room, all priceless objects arrived intact.

The idea for “The First Emperor: China’s Terracotta Army” arose two years ago when the then Prime Minister Tony Blair went to China to strengthen political relationships and ensure better trade conditions between the countries. The side effect of the meeting was the slight improvement of cultural ties between the two nations. British Museum curator, Jane Portal, accompanied Blair on his trip to China. Soon afterwards she started persuading Chinese archeologists and authorities to agree to send the imperial army to the UK. The decision taking process was long and at first the final outcome seemed unfavorable. The fact is, the museum wouldn’t have got permission for the 120 objects on the loan, if Portal had not used all her connections dating back to the 1970s when she was an archeology student in Xian.

The exhibition explores the life and reign of Emperor Qin Shi Huang Di, as well as the excavation of the warriors. It features the largest number of terra-cotta figures ever loaned by China at one time – including two kneeling archers, two generals and one charioteer – and allows visitors the unusual experience of standing face to face with the warriors. At the excavated site in Xian, visitors look down on a pit holding 7,000 amassed warriors. “In London, it’s a much different experience than you get in China,” Portal says. “Here you can walk among them and really see things like the incredible detail that went into making figures like the cavalry horse.”

The terra-cotta army was discovered in 1972 when local farmers digging a well struck baked clay instead of water. The 56-square-kilometer site, which holds 600 pits, is still being excavated; some of the most recent findings, including birds and terra-cotta musicians, are on display in the London show. Experts predict digging at the site will continue for several more decades. Qin’s burial mound, rumored to be heavily booby-trapped, has yet to be exhumed; officials say they do not have the resources for such a dangerous endeavor.

But from what they’ve found so far, it’s clear that Qin was not an average emperor. Born in 260 B.C., he was a great martial strategist who unified all the Chinese states into one empire; it’s believed that the Western name “China” derived from Qin (pronounced “chin”). He built roads, palaces and sculptures, and oversaw the development of a unified script, code of law and system of weights and measurements. After surviving several attempts on his life, the first emperor became obsessed with living forever. He tried to achieve immortality by taking pills and potions containing large amounts of mercury, which most likely killed him.

Preparations for Qin’s tomb were begun well before he died. More than 750,000 workers helped sculpt the clay warriors that would protect him in the afterlife. One of the most interesting items in the exhibition is a long model that shows how the terra-cotta figures were constructed. Clay body parts were fired, then assembled, before the fine details were added. Examples of such torso and leg fragments are on display, along with intricate items like measuring cups, seals and weights with Chinese script.

The highlight, of course, is on the warriors themselves – so powerfully overwhelming, full of honour and dignity, yet so different from the soldiers of today. The slight but obvious scent of terra cotta permeates the room where they stand. The generals who greet visitors are dressed in different regimental detail; a replica of the kneeling archer painted in reds and blues demonstrates how striking the warriors once appeared – and how long and far they’ve come. The visitors are so amazed they can hardly take their eyes off the exhibits. The ancient soldiers’ battle may be over, but their journey still goes on.

14.  The greatest problem the organizers had to face was …

A.     the size of deployment
B.     the shipment’s safety
C.     the distance to cover
D.     the finances involved

15.  The London display was eventually the effect of …

A.     a recent leaders’ encounter
B.     a renewed cultural exchange
C.     a determined lobbyist’s actions
D.     a sudden authorities’ decision

16.  In London visitors can …

A.     view a variety of skilled infantry soldiers
B.     see the biggest number of existing figures
C.     admire an excavation pit full of warriors
D.     look at the figures from a new perspective

17.  The archeologists in Xian …

A.     started excavations in late 1970s
B.     completed excavations in 600 pits
C.     fear to work in one of the spots
D.     stopped work due to lack of funds

18.  Emperor Qin was maniac about …

A.     military campaigns
B.     everlasting existence
C.     engineering projects
D.     common standardization

19.  The most important finding resulting from Qin’s tomb’s excavation is …

A.     the language of inscriptions on the items
B.     the size of the workforce employed there
C.     the process of creating the fragile figures
D.     the time span needed to complete works

20.  The main idea of the last paragraph is …

A.     the durability of the famous Chinese terra-cotta warriors
B.     the contrast in dress between ancient and modern army
C.     the difference in status among the soldiers on display
D.     the impression the old army makes on museum-goers

Test answer key:

1) C     2 A     3 A     4 C     5 B     6 B     7 H     8 D     9 B     10 F     11 G     12 A     13 C     14 B     15 C     16 D     17 C     18 B     19 C     20 D